1. Ritter & Humboldt both died in the year 1859, the same year in which Darwin published his “Origin of Species”.
2. Greeks are often given credit for their monopoly in speculation. Mathematical geography attracted most of the Arab geographers. Ibn Batuta described Morocco as having best climate.
3. Busching belonged to the Political Statistical School. Leyer suggested the natural boundaries for regional studies. The idea of German-centered Europe was given by Nauman. Kjellen was one the most famous Swedish political geographer.
4. The use of natural geography rather than political boundaries for the description of regional geography is known as Reine Geography. Bauche initiated this approach, Getterer divided the whole world into natural regions. Hommeyer implemented this approach & Zeune brought more sophistication in it in that he delimited regions even on the basis of climate, vegetation, etc.
5. Peter Kropotkin & V.V. Dokuchaiev were important geographers of the Russian school of thought.
6. The Cultural or social determinism popular among American geographers. Edward Ullman is a strong
proponent of this theory.
7. Schaefer (1953) in his paper titled, “Exceptionalism in Geography” in which he criticized exceptionalists & asked geographers to adopt methodology of scientific positivism. Hartshorne met this criticism by writing, ‘Perspectives on the nature of Geography’ in which he stuck to his chorological concept of Geography. The result was adoption of nomothetic approach in geography.
8. Areal Differentiation is also known as “Chorology” or “Chorography”.
9. Voluntarism is one of the latest approaches in geography which states that human mode of life depends upon his interaction with his environment. It considers man as a modifier of nature.
10. The heartland (or Pivot Area) theory was given by Mackinder. Heartland referred to Eastern Europe. Mackinder considered the eastern & western side of the Atlantic to be complimentary to each other.
11. The Rimland theory was given by Nicholas Spykman. Rimland referred to the rimland of Eurasia. This theory considered that the key to the supremacy of the world lies in a combination of land power & sea power.
12. Froebel was a staunch opponent of the Comparative method. He said that no one place or mountain can be compared with others as they are not alike. He also rejected teleological view.
13. Marco Polo was an Italian. Bartholomew Diaz, was a Portuguese navigator who discovered Cape of good hope. Columbus was Italian & Vasco de Gama was Portuguese. Balboa (Spanish) crossed the Isthmus of Panama & became the first European to see the Pacific. James Cook (England) made three Pacific Voyages: First to Tahiti, second to New Zealand & third to Hawaii. Francis Champlain established Quebec City as the first French colony in Canada. Magellan & Francis Drake took the journey of the whole world.
14. The term ‘Compage’ was use by Whittlesey means a total region is distinguished by a community of feeling among its inhabitants as well as by all features of the physical & biotic environment.
15. L.D. Stamp carried out the land utilization survey in Great Britain. Torsten Haggerstand developed the stochastic model apart from spatial diffusion of innovation & migration studies (Sweden).
16. Genre de vie means genre of living i.e. same pattern of living. Regional synthesis is associated with B.J.L. Berry who wrote ‘Approaches to regional analysis: A synthesis’. Teleology is opposite to causal
17. Topophilia was coined by Yi-Fu Tuan to denote all the effective ties & love of a human being for his material environment.
18. Edward Ackerman was an American geographer who encouraged his students to take up quantitative approach wrote, ‘Where is the research frontier’.