1. The first reference to Bhogol in Indian Literature is found in Suryasiddhanta & in the Padma Puranas a distinction has been made between Bhogol (Geography), Khogol (the space science) & Jyotishastra.
2. The ancient Indian literature has a reference of seven dwipas or continents. The southern dwipa was named Jambu. The Meru (Pamir knot) lying in the center of the Jambu was heaven. River Sita (Hwang Ho) lies on the eastern side of Meru. Other dwipas were kusu dwipa (Iran, Arabia), Plaska dwipa (Mediterranean), Puskara dwipa (Russia-east of Urals), Kraunca dwipa (area above black sea), Saka dwipa (Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia) & Salmali dwipa.
3. The spherical shape of the earth was visualized by the Aitareya Brahmana who stated that the sun neither sets nor rises. Akshansa (latitudes) & Deshantara (longitude) were known.
4. Vasanta (spring), prourit (rainy season), sarad (autumn) & hemanta (severe winter). The chapters of
geography in Puranas have been called Bhuvankosh.